metabolic site predictor

About MetaPrint2D


MetaPrint2D was developed by Sam Adams, working in collaboration with Lars Carlsson, Scott Boyer and Robert Glen.

Sam Adams and Robert Glen are at the Centre for Molecular Informatics, University of Cambridge, and Lars Carlsson and Scott Boyer are at AstraZeneca, Mölndal.


Scott Boyer and Ismael Zamora described an algorithm for the prediction of sites and products of metabolism using atom- and fragment-based descriptors combined with the substrate/product occurrence ratio [1]. Scott Boyer and Robert Glen set up a project to investigate the utility of a combination of the substrate/product occurrence ratio and circular (MolPrint2D) fingerprints [2] in an automated software environment. Early work in implementing the methodology by James Smith and Viktor Stein indicated the approach had some promise. Catrin Hasselgren Arnby and Lars Carlsson at AstraZeneca implemented a robust version of the algorithm and the results from this implementation were published in 2007 [3]. This software is used within AstraZeneca. An expanded and much improved version of the algorithm, MetaPrint2D, was written from scratch by Sam Adams during the course of his PhD. MetaPrint2D is orders of magnitude faster than the previous implementation, includes an additional module for the prediction of products, has been rigorously evaluated and contains a number of algorithmic and graphical enhancements.

A full description of MetaPrint2D can be found in the PhD thesis Molecular Similarity and Xenobiotic Metabolism.


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License and Warranty

MetaPrint2D is an open source project, licensed under the Apache License, 2.0.

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, MetaPrint2D distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.


[1] Boyer S. and Zamora I. New methods in predictive metabolism. Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 2002, 16(5-6), 403-413. DOI: 10.1023/A:1020881520931

[2] Bender A, Mussa HY, Glen RC, Reiling S. J Chem Inf Comput Sci. 2004 Sep-Oct;44(5):1708-18. DOI: 10.1021/ci0498719

[3] Boyer S., Arnby, C.H., Carlsson L., Smith, J., Stein, V. and Glen R.C. Reaction Site Mapping of Xenobiotic Biotransformations. J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2007, 47(2), 583-590. DOI: 10.1021/ci600376q